Global investment in the energy transition totalled $755 billion in 2021 – a new record – off the back of rising climate ambition and policy action from countries around the world, according to ‘Energy Transition Investment Trends 2022’, a new report published by research firm BloombergNEF (BNEF).
Investment rose in almost every sector covered in the report, including renewable energy, energy storage, electrified transport, electrified heat, nuclear, hydrogen and sustainable materials. Only carbon capture and storage (CCS) recorded a dip in investment, though there were many new projects announced in the year.
‘Energy Transition Investment Trends’ is BNEF’s annual accounting of how much businesses, financial institutions, governments and end-users are committing to the low-carbon energy transition. Renewable energy, which includes wind, solar and other renewables, remains the largest sector in investment terms, achieving a new record of $366 billion committed in 2021, up 6.5 per cent from the year prior. Electrified transport, which includes spending on electric vehicles and associated infrastructure, was the second-largest sector with $273 billion invested. With electric vehicle sales surging, this sector grew at a breakneck rate of 77 per cent in 2021 and could overtake renewable energy in dollar terms in 2022.
Together, clean power and electrification (comprising renewables, nuclear, energy storage, electrified transport and electrified heat) accounted for the vast majority of investment at $731 billion. Hydrogen, carbon capture and storage and sustainable materials made up the rest, totalling $24 billion.
Albert Cheung, head of analysis at BloombergNEF, said: “The global commodities crunch has created new challenges for the clean energy sector, raising input costs for key technologies like solar modules, wind turbines and battery packs. Against this backdrop, a 27 per cent increase in energy transition investment in 2021 is an encouraging sign that investors, governments and businesses are more committed than ever to the low-carbon transition, and see it as part of the solution for the current turmoil in energy markets.”
Record amounts were invested in all three regions covered in the report: Asia Pacific (APAC), Europe, Middle East & Africa (EMEA), and the Americas (AMER). APAC was both the largest region for investment at $368 billion (nearly half the global total), and the region with the highest growth at 38 per cent in 2021. Energy transition investment in EMEA grew by 16 per cent in 2021, reaching $236 billion, while the Americas saw investment grow by 21 per cent to $150 billion.
China was again the largest single country for energy transition investment, committing $266 billion in 2021. The United States was in second place with $114 billion, though EU member states as a bloc committed more at $154 billion. Germany, the U.K. and France rounded out the top five countries for energy transition investment in 2021. Asia-Pacific countries now hold four of the top 10 places in terms of energy transition investment levels, with India and South Korea joining China and Japan.
BNEF’s 2021 ‘New Energy Outlook’ (NEO) mapped out three alternative scenarios (dubbed Green, Red and Gray) for reaching global net zero by 2050, in line with 1.75 degrees of global warming. This latest report, when compared with NEO, shows that investment levels need to roughly triple, such that they average $2.1 trillion per annum between 2022 and 2025, in order to get on track for any of those three scenarios. They then need to double again, to an average of $4.2 trillion between 2026 and 2030. At current growth rates, the electrified transport sector has the best chance of getting on track for such investment levels; other sectors look less likely to get on track.
Matthias Kimmel, head of energy economics at BNEF, said: “The world is rapidly running out of carbon budget to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement. The energy transition is well underway, and moving faster than ever, but governments will need to mobilise much more finance in the next few years if we are to get on track for net zero by 2050.”